Proposals for a Definition and Map of Legal Risk

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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Proposals for a Definition...
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Type : Position paper
Date : le 24/06/2011
Complément d'informations

For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

Pôle de recherche LegalEdhec

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(284) "

For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["safe_summary"]=> string(191) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" } } } ["field_type_publication"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(1) { ["tid"]=> string(2) "55" } } } ["field_pole_recherche"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(1) { ["tid"]=> string(2) "77" } } } ["field_date"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(5) { ["value"]=> string(19) "2011-06-24 00:00:00" ["value2"]=> string(19) "2011-06-24 00:00:00" ["timezone"]=> string(12) "Europe/Paris" ["timezone_db"]=> string(12) "Europe/Paris" ["date_type"]=> string(8) "datetime" } } } ["field_image_publication"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(16) { ["fid"]=> string(5) "15101" ["uid"]=> string(3) "330" ["filename"]=> string(37) "pub_proposal_for_a_definition_185.jpg" ["uri"]=> string(46) "public://pub_proposal_for_a_definition_185.jpg" ["filemime"]=> string(10) "image/jpeg" ["filesize"]=> string(4) "6156" ["status"]=> string(1) "1" ["timestamp"]=> string(10) "1480784571" ["type"]=> string(5) "image" ["uuid"]=> string(36) "571329a2-2830-4d6d-bffa-911370e87128" ["rdf_mapping"]=> array(0) { } ["image_dimensions"]=> array(2) { ["width"]=> string(3) "185" ["height"]=> string(3) "262" } ["alt"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(0) "" ["width"]=> string(3) "185" ["height"]=> string(3) "262" } } } ["field_documents"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(2) { ["value"]=> string(5) "16131" ["revision_id"]=> string(5) "16131" } } } ["field_lien"]=> array(0) { } ["field_complement_d_information"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(3) { ["value"]=> string(293) "

For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(284) "

For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["safe_summary"]=> string(191) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Legal risk management, Law & strategy

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["safe_summary"]=> string(191) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Legal risk management, Law & strategy

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Legal risk management, Law & strategy

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

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La Semaine Juridique - Entreprises & Affaire (2016), Concurrences (2012), Juristes d'Entreprises Magazine (2011), e-Competitions (2008 ; 2009 ; 2010), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2008 ; 2009 ; 2016), Petites Affiches (2002 ; 2007), Innovation & Management (2005), Journal des Sociétés (2004), International Review of Law Computers & Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2000)

" ["safe_summary"]=> string(0) "" } } } ["field_poste_current"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(3) { ["value"]=> string(93) "Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master" ["format"]=> NULL ["safe_value"]=> string(97) "Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master" } } } ["field_coordonn_es"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(3) { ["value"]=> string(150) "EDHEC Business School 24, avenue Gustave Delory CS 50411   59057 Roubaix Cedex 1 - France Tel.: + 33 (0)3 20 15 45 00 Fax: + 33 (0)3 20 15 45 01" ["format"]=> NULL ["safe_value"]=> string(150) "EDHEC Business School 24, avenue Gustave Delory CS 50411   59057 Roubaix Cedex 1 - France Tel.: + 33 (0)3 20 15 45 00 Fax: + 33 (0)3 20 15 45 01" } } } ["field_mail"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(3) { ["value"]=> string(28) "christophe.collard@edhec.edu" ["format"]=> NULL ["safe_value"]=> string(28) "christophe.collard@edhec.edu" } } } ["field_documents"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(2) { ["value"]=> string(4) "1781" ["revision_id"]=> string(4) "1781" } } } ["field_cible"]=> array(0) { } ["field_siteweb"]=> array(0) { } ["field_facebook"]=> array(0) { } ["field_twitter"]=> array(0) { } ["field_linkendin"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(3) { ["url"]=> string(46) "https://www.linkedin.com/in/christophecollard/" ["title"]=> string(0) "" ["attributes"]=> array(0) { } } } } ["field_team_image"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(16) { ["fid"]=> string(4) "9832" ["uid"]=> string(3) "145" ["filename"]=> string(22) "christophe_collard.jpg" ["uri"]=> string(31) "public://christophe_collard.jpg" ["filemime"]=> string(10) "image/jpeg" ["filesize"]=> string(5) "26269" ["status"]=> string(1) "1" ["timestamp"]=> string(10) "1473861092" ["type"]=> string(5) "image" ["uuid"]=> string(36) "abe35616-f4ec-4d97-8a83-88f9513a081b" ["rdf_mapping"]=> array(0) { } ["image_dimensions"]=> array(2) { ["width"]=> string(3) "300" ["height"]=> string(3) "300" } ["alt"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(0) "" ["width"]=> string(3) "300" ["height"]=> string(3) "300" } } } ["field_specialite"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(1) { ["tid"]=> string(2) "84" } } } ["field_expertise"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(1) { ["tid"]=> string(3) "143" } } } ["field_short_bio"]=> array(1) { ["und"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(5) { ["value"]=> string(762) "

Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Christophe Collard is Professor of Law, Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management and Coordinator for Law Master Courses at EDHEC Business School. He teaches Antitrust Law, Contract Law and Legal Management, delivering courses to a wide range of publics, with a genuine experience of teaching in foreign countries. As a member of the LegalEdhec Research Centre, Professor Collard maintains an active research agenda in the areas of Legal Management and Strategies. He has presented numerous papers at French and international conferences and his research have appeared in a variety of academic and professional journals. He is the co-author of one of the best selling books in France dedicated to the concept of “legal performance”.

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Legal risk management, Law & strategy

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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Professor - Director of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Member of the LegalEDHEC research centre - Coordinator for Law Courses, EDHEC Master

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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Juriste d'Entreprise Magazine (2015), Economie Appliquée (2014), Revue Française de Gouvernance d'Entreprise (2013), RAM (2012), Concurrences (2012), Option Droit & Affaires (2012), MIS Quarterly (2011), Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2011 ; 2012), Gazette du Palais (2010), Revue Concurrences (2010 ; 2012), M@n@gement (2009), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2009 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2016), Recherches et Applications en Marketing (2011), Les Petites Affiches (2008), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2001)

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Juriste d'Entreprise Magazine (2015), Economie Appliquée (2014), Revue Française de Gouvernance d'Entreprise (2013), RAM (2012), Concurrences (2012), Option Droit & Affaires (2012), MIS Quarterly (2011), Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2011 ; 2012), Gazette du Palais (2010), Revue Concurrences (2010 ; 2012), M@n@gement (2009), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2009 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2016), Recherches et Applications en Marketing (2011), Les Petites Affiches (2008), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2001)

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Christophe Roquilly, Ph.D, is Professor of Law, where he is Director of the LegalEdhec Research Centre and also serves as Dean of Faculty and Research. He holds a PhD in private law and has conducted substantial research in areas relating to law, management and business strategy. This research has been the subject of publications within academic and professional journals, both in France and internationally, and he has also published a number of works and book chapters. He is also the Co-Director of the EDHEC LLM Law & Tax Management programme. Christophe Roquilly sits on the Scientific Board of Business & Legal Forum, the Advisory Board of ECLA (European Company Lawyers Association), the Board of Advisories of the World Council for Law Firms and Justice, and on the Advisory Board of the firm Arsene-Taxand. He runs the LegalEdhec column called "Law and Innovation", which is part of the Semaine Juridique Entreprise et Affaires journal. He has been appointed to the EPAS Accreditation Board (EFMD)

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Christophe Roquilly, Ph.D, is Professor of Law, where he is Director of the LegalEdhec Research Centre and also serves as Dean of Faculty and Research. He holds a PhD in private law and has conducted substantial research in areas relating to law, management and business strategy. This research has been the subject of publications within academic and professional journals, both in France and internationally, and he has also published a number of works and book chapters. He is also the Co-Director of the EDHEC LLM Law & Tax Management programme. Christophe Roquilly sits on the Scientific Board of Business & Legal Forum, the Advisory Board of ECLA (European Company Lawyers Association), the Board of Advisories of the World Council for Law Firms and Justice, and on the Advisory Board of the firm Arsene-Taxand. He runs the LegalEdhec column called "Law and Innovation", which is part of the Semaine Juridique Entreprise et Affaires journal. He has been appointed to the EPAS Accreditation Board (EFMD)

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Digital and IT, Legal risk management, Financial and Legal Performance

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Dean for Faculty and Research - Director of LegalEdhec Research Centre, Co-Head of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Professor

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Dean for Faculty and Research - Director of LegalEdhec Research Centre, Co-Head of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Professor

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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Juriste d'Entreprise Magazine (2015), Economie Appliquée (2014), Revue Française de Gouvernance d'Entreprise (2013), RAM (2012), Concurrences (2012), Option Droit & Affaires (2012), MIS Quarterly (2011), Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2011 ; 2012), Gazette du Palais (2010), Revue Concurrences (2010 ; 2012), M@n@gement (2009), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2009 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2016), Recherches et Applications en Marketing (2011), Les Petites Affiches (2008), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2001)

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Juriste d'Entreprise Magazine (2015), Economie Appliquée (2014), Revue Française de Gouvernance d'Entreprise (2013), RAM (2012), Concurrences (2012), Option Droit & Affaires (2012), MIS Quarterly (2011), Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2011 ; 2012), Gazette du Palais (2010), Revue Concurrences (2010 ; 2012), M@n@gement (2009), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2009 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2016), Recherches et Applications en Marketing (2011), Les Petites Affiches (2008), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2001)

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Christophe Roquilly, Ph.D, is Professor of Law, where he is Director of the LegalEdhec Research Centre and also serves as Dean of Faculty and Research. He holds a PhD in private law and has conducted substantial research in areas relating to law, management and business strategy. This research has been the subject of publications within academic and professional journals, both in France and internationally, and he has also published a number of works and book chapters. He is also the Co-Director of the EDHEC LLM Law & Tax Management programme. Christophe Roquilly sits on the Scientific Board of Business & Legal Forum, the Advisory Board of ECLA (European Company Lawyers Association), the Board of Advisories of the World Council for Law Firms and Justice, and on the Advisory Board of the firm Arsene-Taxand. He runs the LegalEdhec column called "Law and Innovation", which is part of the Semaine Juridique Entreprise et Affaires journal. He has been appointed to the EPAS Accreditation Board (EFMD)

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Christophe Roquilly, Ph.D, is Professor of Law, where he is Director of the LegalEdhec Research Centre and also serves as Dean of Faculty and Research. He holds a PhD in private law and has conducted substantial research in areas relating to law, management and business strategy. This research has been the subject of publications within academic and professional journals, both in France and internationally, and he has also published a number of works and book chapters. He is also the Co-Director of the EDHEC LLM Law & Tax Management programme. Christophe Roquilly sits on the Scientific Board of Business & Legal Forum, the Advisory Board of ECLA (European Company Lawyers Association), the Board of Advisories of the World Council for Law Firms and Justice, and on the Advisory Board of the firm Arsene-Taxand. He runs the LegalEdhec column called "Law and Innovation", which is part of the Semaine Juridique Entreprise et Affaires journal. He has been appointed to the EPAS Accreditation Board (EFMD)

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Digital and IT, Legal risk management, Financial and Legal Performance

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Dean for Faculty and Research - Director of LegalEdhec Research Centre, Co-Head of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Professor

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Dean for Faculty and Research - Director of LegalEdhec Research Centre, Co-Head of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Professor

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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Juriste d'Entreprise Magazine (2015), Economie Appliquée (2014), Revue Française de Gouvernance d'Entreprise (2013), RAM (2012), Concurrences (2012), Option Droit & Affaires (2012), MIS Quarterly (2011), Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2011 ; 2012), Gazette du Palais (2010), Revue Concurrences (2010 ; 2012), M@n@gement (2009), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2009 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2016), Recherches et Applications en Marketing (2011), Les Petites Affiches (2008), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2001)

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Juriste d'Entreprise Magazine (2015), Economie Appliquée (2014), Revue Française de Gouvernance d'Entreprise (2013), RAM (2012), Concurrences (2012), Option Droit & Affaires (2012), MIS Quarterly (2011), Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2011 ; 2012), Gazette du Palais (2010), Revue Concurrences (2010 ; 2012), M@n@gement (2009), Cahiers de Droit de l'Entreprise (2009 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2016), Recherches et Applications en Marketing (2011), Les Petites Affiches (2008), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2002), Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (2001), Journal of Information, Law and Technology (2001)

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Christophe Roquilly, Ph.D, is Professor of Law, where he is Director of the LegalEdhec Research Centre and also serves as Dean of Faculty and Research. He holds a PhD in private law and has conducted substantial research in areas relating to law, management and business strategy. This research has been the subject of publications within academic and professional journals, both in France and internationally, and he has also published a number of works and book chapters. He is also the Co-Director of the EDHEC LLM Law & Tax Management programme. Christophe Roquilly sits on the Scientific Board of Business & Legal Forum, the Advisory Board of ECLA (European Company Lawyers Association), the Board of Advisories of the World Council for Law Firms and Justice, and on the Advisory Board of the firm Arsene-Taxand. He runs the LegalEdhec column called "Law and Innovation", which is part of the Semaine Juridique Entreprise et Affaires journal. He has been appointed to the EPAS Accreditation Board (EFMD)

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Christophe Roquilly, Ph.D, is Professor of Law, where he is Director of the LegalEdhec Research Centre and also serves as Dean of Faculty and Research. He holds a PhD in private law and has conducted substantial research in areas relating to law, management and business strategy. This research has been the subject of publications within academic and professional journals, both in France and internationally, and he has also published a number of works and book chapters. He is also the Co-Director of the EDHEC LLM Law & Tax Management programme. Christophe Roquilly sits on the Scientific Board of Business & Legal Forum, the Advisory Board of ECLA (European Company Lawyers Association), the Board of Advisories of the World Council for Law Firms and Justice, and on the Advisory Board of the firm Arsene-Taxand. He runs the LegalEdhec column called "Law and Innovation", which is part of the Semaine Juridique Entreprise et Affaires journal. He has been appointed to the EPAS Accreditation Board (EFMD)

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Digital and IT, Legal risk management, Financial and Legal Performance

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Dean for Faculty and Research - Director of LegalEdhec Research Centre, Co-Head of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Professor

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Dean for Faculty and Research - Director of LegalEdhec Research Centre, Co-Head of LL.M Law & Tax Management - Professor

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["safe_summary"]=> string(191) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(284) "

For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["summary"]=> string(192) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

" ["safe_summary"]=> string(191) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(284) "

For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

" ["format"]=> string(9) "full_html" ["safe_value"]=> string(3024) "

The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers: strategic value (achievement of strategic objectives, reconsideration of a competitive advantage over the longer term, effects on the reputation of the company), financial value (costs, loss of profits over the medium or longer terms), and institutional value (impact on relationships with institutions and government authorities, as well as with such civil-society institutions as nonprofits, consumer associations, and so on). The identification of legal risks is the most complex phase. The basic tool for detection of legal risk is the definition of legal risk itself, which must be rigorous and practicable from an operational point of view. In this respect, we have come up with a definition/tool to which are inherent the principles of its use: Legal risk arises from the conjunction of a legal norm and an event, with either one or the other (or both) being characterised by a degree of uncertainty. This conjunction of a legal norm and an event in a context of uncertainty will have consequences likely to affect the value of the company. This proposal can be summed up in a three-part recommendation, the formulation of which is of interest in terms of communication: Look for the legal norm, look for the event, gauge the degree of uncertainty weighing on one or the other or on both: the norm, the event.
Our method of mapping legal risks is founded concretely on a continuum encompassing the following phases:

1. starting from the value chain of the business under consideration

2. a/ identifying the legal norms involved in each part of the value chain
b/ evaluating, in keeping with particular coding, the degree of legal uncertainty presented by the identified norm 

3. a/ identifying the factual events that may intersect the legal norm under consideration b/ evaluating, in keeping with specific coding, the factual degree of uncertainty presented by the identified event

4. identifying legal risk by crossing the results of phases 2 and 3 

5. evaluating the impact of legal risk on value.

This process was tested from an operational point of view (and can thus be illustrated) by going through the abovementioned phasesthat is, 1. -> 2. a/ b/ -> 3. a/ b/ -> 4. -> 5. This process was explored in the other directionthat is (as the order of the phases must then be revised): 5. -> 4. -> 3. a/ b/ -> 2. a/ b/ -> 1.
In other words, the proposals above mean that mapping legal risk can be done either forward or backwards. This leads us to propose two methods complementary methods or alternativesof mapping legal risk: the forward identification process, the advantage of which is its analytical nature, and the backwards identification process, the advantage of which is that it promotes the ranking of legal risks. 

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The mapping of legal risks is founded on a single major idea: it must be based on the potential consequences of legal risk in terms of value destruction, evaluated in three registers.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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For more information, please contact Joanne Finlay, EDHEC Research and Development Department [ joanne.finlay@edhec.edu ]

The contents of this paper do not necessarily reflect the opinions of EDHEC Business School.

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