A Portfolio Approach to Venture Capital Financing

Pascal François, Georges Hübner: This paper studies the contracting choices between an entrepreneur and venture capital investors in a portfolio context.

Author(s):

Pascal Francois

Associate Professor of Finance, HEC Montréal

Georges Hubner

Affiliate Professor of Finance, EDHEC Business School

We rely on the mean-variance framework and derive the optimal choices for an entrepreneur with and without the presence of different kinds of venture capitalists. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur always has the incentive to share the risk and benefits of the venture whenever possible. On the basis of their objectives and characteristics, we distinguish the situations of the corporate, independent, and bank-sponsored venture capital funds. Our framework enables us to derive the optimal contract design for the entrepreneur, featuring the choice of investor, the entrepreneur’s investment in the venture, and her dilution in the project’s equity as a function of her bargaining power. This result allows us to characterise the choice of the investor depending on her cost of equity and debt capital. In addition to project size and risk, entrepreneur’s risk aversion turns out to be a critical determinant of VC investor choice — a finding which is strongly supported by a panel analysis of VC fund flows for 5 European countries over the 2002—2009 period.
Pdf
A Portfolio Approach to Venture Capital Financing...
(-1.00 B)
Type: Working paper
Date: le 08/11/2010
Extra information : For more information, please contact EDHEC Research and Development Department [ research@drd.edhec.edu ]
Research Cluster : Finance

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In particular, we show that the entrepreneur always has the incentive to share the risk and benefits of the venture whenever possible. On the basis of their objectives and characteristics, we distinguish the situations of the corporate, independent, and bank-sponsored venture capital funds. Our framework enables us to derive the optimal contract design for the entrepreneur, featuring the choice of investor, the entrepreneur’s investment in the venture, and her dilution in the project’s equity as a function of her bargaining power. This result allows us to characterise the choice of the investor depending on her cost of equity and debt capital. In addition to project size and risk, entrepreneur’s risk aversion turns out to be a critical determinant of VC investor choice — a finding which is strongly supported by a panel analysis of VC fund flows for 5 European countries over the 2002—2009 period. 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In particular, we show that the entrepreneur always has the incentive to share the risk and benefits of the venture whenever possible. On the basis of their objectives and characteristics, we distinguish the situations of the corporate, independent, and bank-sponsored venture capital funds. Our framework enables us to derive the optimal contract design for the entrepreneur, featuring the choice of investor, the entrepreneur’s investment in the venture, and her dilution in the project’s equity as a function of her bargaining power. This result allows us to characterise the choice of the investor depending on her cost of equity and debt capital. In addition to project size and risk, entrepreneur’s risk aversion turns out to be a critical determinant of VC investor choice — a finding which is strongly supported by a panel analysis of VC fund flows for 5 European countries over the 2002—2009 period. 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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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In particular, we show that the entrepreneur always has the incentive to share the risk and benefits of the venture whenever possible. On the basis of their objectives and characteristics, we distinguish the situations of the corporate, independent, and bank-sponsored venture capital funds. Our framework enables us to derive the optimal contract design for the entrepreneur, featuring the choice of investor, the entrepreneur’s investment in the venture, and her dilution in the project’s equity as a function of her bargaining power. This result allows us to characterise the choice of the investor depending on her cost of equity and debt capital. In addition to project size and risk, entrepreneur’s risk aversion turns out to be a critical determinant of VC investor choice — a finding which is strongly supported by a panel analysis of VC fund flows for 5 European countries over the 2002—2009 period. 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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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In particular, we show that the entrepreneur always has the incentive to share the risk and benefits of the venture whenever possible. On the basis of their objectives and characteristics, we distinguish the situations of the corporate, independent, and bank-sponsored venture capital funds. Our framework enables us to derive the optimal contract design for the entrepreneur, featuring the choice of investor, the entrepreneur’s investment in the venture, and her dilution in the project’s equity as a function of her bargaining power. This result allows us to characterise the choice of the investor depending on her cost of equity and debt capital. In addition to project size and risk, entrepreneur’s risk aversion turns out to be a critical determinant of VC investor choice — a finding which is strongly supported by a panel analysis of VC fund flows for 5 European countries over the 2002—2009 period. 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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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Journal of Empirical Finance (2013), Small Business Economics (2013), Quantitative Finance (2013), Economies Review (2013), International Review of Financial Analysis (2012), Applied Financial Economics (2012), Bankers, Markets and Investors (2012), Managerial Finance (2012), Finance (2011), Quarterly Journal of Finance (2011), Journal of Alternative Investments (2011), Research in International Business and Finance (2011), Annals of Operations Research (2010), Journal of Financial Research (2010), Journal of Futures Markets (2010), Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), Journal of Portfolio Management (2007), Journal of Banking and Finance (2001 ; 2004 ; 2010), Journal of International Money and Finance (2007), Financial Management (2006), Journal of Finance (2005), Review of Finance (2005), Journal of Future Markets (2004 ; 2005)

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